Saturday, May 23, 2020
I am a Detective with Whoville Police Department. I have full police powers and investigate all cases within the city of Whoville. I investigate all crimes and have county and state recourses available for assistance. The first step in the investigation took place when the general manager of the D M food store called the police department to speak with someone in reference to possible employee theft. On February 2, 2016 at 1330 hours, I met with Hugh Downs. He explained to me that he suspected his part time assistant manager, Lowraine James of theft. As the detective assigned to the case, I immediately began an investigation. I asked if the food store had cameras that I could view to see if anything can be seen. I also inquired as to whether the computer history could be checked by appropriate IT personnel. On February 3, 2016, I began reviewing video footage of L. JamesÃ¢â¬â¢s work shift. While viewing the footage, I noticed over the course of James work shift, she would stash cash on the side of the cash register after ringing up several purchases from customers. At the end of her work shift while James was counting monies in the cash drawer, she would separate the money and place some of the money in a bank deposit bag and place the previously stashed cash in a brown paper bag. On several occasions, I also noticed when L. James worked an evening shift, she would carry a medium size box and place it in the trunk of her vehicle prior to the end of her work shift. This took
Monday, May 18, 2020
The health facility tours in Austria were conducted at two hospitals, Barmherzige Bruder in Salzburg and tirol klinikenÃ¢â¬â¢s central hospital in Innsbruck. Barmherzige Bruder is a hospital based in a monastery. Tirol klinikenÃ¢â¬â¢s central hospital is part of a larger hospital system serving the Tirol region of Austria. Both hospitals resembled U.S. hospitals physically; but, both hospitals had a cleaner feel. The hospitals were quieter than then ones IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been in the U.S. Less people were in the common spaces. Like some of the U.S.Ã¢â¬â¢s university based teaching hospitals, tirol klinikenÃ¢â¬â¢s hospital in Innsbruck is associated with a University. The University hospital had spacious patient rooms in the neurology department and many rooms appeared empty. A pneumatic tube delivery system delivered mail and other things to different departmentÃ¢â¬â¢s including samples to the central lab. The emergency room was set up with two distinct units. One unit handled injuries involving blood and did not have any rooms. This unit triaged individuals behind curtains and moved the patient to the part of the hospital best equipped to deal with their condition. The second unit handled all other illnesses and had six beds. Finally, we were able to tour the heliport. Due to the rural and mountainous conditions, helicopters are placed strategically in the Tirol region where accidents are likely to occur and other vehicles canÃ¢â¬â¢t gain access. The helicopters are staffed with one do ctor andShow MoreRelatedUnited National Environment Program Environment For Development ( Unep )2210 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesall-inclusive package tours, about 80% of travelers expenditures go to the airlines, hotels and other international companies (who often have their headquarters in the travelers home countries), and not to local businesses or workers. In addition, significant amounts of income actually retained at destination level can leave again through leakage. A study of tourism leakage in Thailand estimated that 70% of all money spent by tourists ended up leaving Thailand (via foreign-owned tour operators, airlinesRead MoreMarketing in Travel Tourism4071 Words Ã |Ã 17 PagesBeer Festival Cologne Carnival Long Night of the Museums Business Tourism Berlin Frankfurt Hamburg Shopping CentrO Oberhausen KÃ ¤the Wohlfahrt Shop State porcelain factory in Meissen Culinary Tourism Cologne Frieburg Munich Health Tourism Lower Saxony Lower Saxony Lower Saxony Culture and History Frieburg Jazz House The Jazz House was established by jazz lovers to promote jazz music and as an education centre for young musicians. It still performs this functionRead MoreTsmp6511 Words Ã |Ã 27 Pages7. Respondent profile Places visited and activities undertaken Interest in alterative activities Diver experience and dive operators Rating of quality and health of reefs in TSMP Additional comments Willingness-to-pay 2 2 4 5 7 8 10 11 13 15 17 20 21 2. Discussion and conclusions regarding entry and diving fee Annex 1. Letter to tour operators Annex 2. Survey questionnaire 1 TSMP Visitor and Willingness-to-pay Survey Introduction and aims Tun Sakaran Marine Park was gazetted asRead MoreCooking Is Like Painting Or Writing A Song2827 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesbecame an instant bestseller. A second and then a third television series were commissioned, along with the second and third tie-in books. In 2001 he went on a tourÃ¢â¬âthe Happy Days TourÃ¢â¬âtaking his cookery show on the road. Jamie continues to go on filming television shows, winning many awards, and travel around the world on his phenomenal tours. Jamie also had the opportunity to cook for the Prime Minister at Tony BlairÃ¢â¬â¢s invitation at Downing St. Chef Jamie Oliver is one of the many chefs that I lookRead MoreConduct a Marketing Audit Major Assignment10193 Words Ã |Ã 41 Pagesarea. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s goal is to grow steadily, becoming profitable by the second year of operations. Products and Services Aussie-One Travel Agency recently became the appointed agents for MargieÃ¢â¬â¢s Travel, one of the largest and most respected tour operators in the market. With virtually no marketing effort, Aussie-One Travel Agency has sold about 200 adventure vacations in the past six months, netting $66,800 in commissions. Sales of insurance policies and other services have added to this totalRead MoreSociology of Tourism - Pro Poor Tourism6314 Words Ã |Ã 26 Pagesare not connected with any earning activity. In 1976, the Tourism Society of Englands definition was: Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destination outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes. In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the home TheRead MoreSociology of Tourism - Pro P oor Tourism6321 Words Ã |Ã 26 Pagesare not connected with any earning activity. In 1976, the Tourism Society of Englands definition was: Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destination outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes. In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the home TheRead MoreSport Tourism6457 Words Ã |Ã 26 Pageson an old theme. The growth in the popularity of sport-oriented leisure travel can be viewed daily. Cars laden with bicycles, skis, and canoes are a frequent sight on our highways. Likewise, the number of vacation destinations offering sporting facilities has grown tremendously. The profusion of golfers and new golf courses is a perfect example of the interest in sport-oriented travel. Waters (1990) repor ted that the shortage of golf courses in certain areas has prompted many travelers to spend theirRead MoreFood in Literature: a Book Review on Charlie and the Chocolate Factor5984 Words Ã |Ã 24 Pagesdecided to close the factory from outsiders. It was not until ten years later did Willy Wonka decide to allow five lucky children, who happened to retrieve a golden ticket from under his chocolate wrappings, to enter the factory and receive a private tour from Mr Wonka himself. Among the lucky children were Augustus Gloop, Veruna Salt, Violet Beauregarde, and Mike Teavee: all of which unworthy and spoilt children. In contrast, the poor and virtuous Charlie Bucket, whose dream was to enter Willy WonkaÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreAviation Geography7450 Words Ã |Ã 30 Pagesin winter, but hot and humid during the summer months. The humidity is particularly high in the coastal areas. Rainfall is virtually non-existent, with occasional short showers occurring mainly in winter (December to March ). Localized thunderstorms sometimes occur in summer. Dubai enjoys an arid subtropical climate, with blue skies and sunshine all year round. The hottest months are between June and September, when temperatures can soar to 113Ã °F (45Ã °C) and more during the day and humidity levels
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
In this writing it will be discussing childhood development, as well as some vital issues that might come along during those stages of development. Child development consist of the stage where the child is developing physically, cognitively, socially and spiritually. During these stages of development a child is maturing from infancy to becoming a young adult. For many years theorist such as Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson, and Lev VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s have researched how children mature from infants to adulthood. Each of the theorist have profound facts to how children develop, but which of the three men are correct on their findings? Sigmund Freud, a theorist who is well known for his analyzing the way people raise up their children, according to McLeod, S., (2013). Freud was one who search deep within an individual and seek out the processes of their personality. Another credible theorist is Erik Erikson. As an ego psychologist, Erickson focuses on the fact that culture and soc iety help an individual develop trust. Erickson takes a great interest to how children socialize. He seeks to find out if the way children socialize, and their culture will take an effect on them as they mature into adults. The last theorist that will be discussed is Lev Vygotsky. He was well known for his through research in cognitive development in children, which is also known as social development. McLeod, (2014) states that Vygotsky says that a child will develop social skills before theyShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Eriksons Theory On Early Childhood Education1212 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesimpact on early childhood education. Knowing the teoriests and the ideas that they had is vital in the education profession. Erik Erikson Hope is both the earliest and the most indispensable virtue inherent in the state of being alive. If life is to be sustained hope must remain, even where confidence is wounded, trust impaired. - Erik Erikson Erik Erikson (1902-1994) was a Germon born developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on psychosocial development of human lie.Read MorePiaget Of The Child : Theories Of Development Essay960 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages In the Ã¢â¬Å"Study of the Child: Theories of Development IÃ¢â¬ (Learning Seed, 1997), according to Vygotsky, the cognitive development in children is in direct relationship, and dependent on interaction with others. (Feldman 2010, pg. 20). Vygotsky believed to truly understand cognitive development; a childÃ¢â¬â¢s social and cultural experiences must be considered. Piaget believes theorists that focus on the mind are called cognitive theorists. Piaget was most interested in how children think. Piaget describesRead MoreChildÃ¢â¬â¢s Play is Serious Business Essay1611 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"For young children, there is no distinction between play and learning; they are one and the same. Playing is a priority in early childhood, yet not all play is the sameÃ¢â¬ (Butler, 2008, p. 1). Since the beginning of mankind children have imitated adults and learned to survive through play. Evidence of this includes toys and board games from 6,000 years ago that have been found in Egypt and Asia (Dollinger, 2000). In the last two centuries, childÃ¢â¬â¢s play has been observed and studied by theoristsRead MoreTheories Of Development And Development Influence Human Intelligence1676 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageslearning and development. Some major theorists that are incorporated with theories of development include Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky, and Erik Eriks on. Along with the theories of development, there are theories of learning. The four main theories include cognitive, constructivism, social cognitive, and situative. First and foremost, Jean Piaget can be considered a pioneer in psychology. His theory is considered one of the most influential and comprehensive theories of cognitive development. This theoryRead MoreVygotsky s Theory Of Identity Development Essay1570 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSocial development is one of the most significant aspects of a childs life, for they can not live with out social interaction, the moment they are born they are being interacted with, typically social development happens to everyone throughout their life, with the rare cases of adults becoming hermits, there is no escape from developing socially to fit in with those around you, or to stand out. works along side emotional development as how we develop socially affects our emotions and the emotionsRead MoreMe Doing What I Gotta Do1323 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHuman Growth and Development Ch. 7 amp; 8 Study Guide *. During early childhood, on average, girls are smaller and lighter than boys. *. By the end of early childhood, compared to each other, boys have muscle tissue, whereas girls have fatty tissue. *. By repeatedly obtaining brain scans of the same children for up to four years, researchers found that the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s brains experience undergo dramatic anatomical change between the ages of 3 and 15. *. Researchers have found that inRead MoreThe Theory Of Child Development803 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn the early 19th Century, little attention was given to children development. Emphasis were based upon what a child would become as they get older( Green 2013)However, it was investigated by human developmental psychologist that Child development is relevant in relation to how individuals relate in the environment as well as the factors that influence human development. These psychologists developed the human developmental life span which is predominant in the society today, although remains unsubstantiatedRead More The Nature of Child Development Essay1172 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHuman development has been a subject of interest since ancient Greece and Rome. Different approaches derive from two basic directions: the nativists` and empiricists` ones. The latter method is to regard human development as a gradual change which has been influenced by the individual`s experience .On the othe r hand, the former approach has found its roots in the biological structure of the human organism which considers our development as a series of stages. However, referring to human developmentRead MoreA Case Study Of Antwan Elliot1183 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesis provided. The biographical information includes his life experiences from birth to present day. Also, specific narratives of AntwanÃ¢â¬â¢s life will be used as examples to ascertain or repudiate the developmental psychological theories of Erik Erikson, Lev Vygotsky and Jean Piaget. A Case Study of Antwan Elliot Biography Antwan is a 19 year-old African American male. He grew up on the outskirts of downtown Raleigh in a poor neighborhood. AntwanÃ¢â¬â¢s father constantly worked to support the familyRead MorePlay Is Important For A Child s Development1747 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBefore we explore why play is important for a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development, letÃ¢â¬â¢s take a look at what exactly Ã¢â¬Å"playÃ¢â¬ is. Play can be a vague term in the educational world because its definition is unclear, especially when putting it in the context of a classroom. Play can be defined as anything a child does within the social context and sometimes it is defined as just recess or free time. There are confusing and conflicting definitions but there are two sure forms of play in the context of education:
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Abstract Cohabitation is defined as a man and woman living in the same household and having sexual relations while not being married. There is relatively little data on health outcomes for people who have cohabitated, although there is some evidence that cohabitating couples have lower incomes (15% of cohabitating men are jobless while 8% of married men are jobless) and there may be negative academic effects for children of cohabitating mothers (Jay, 2012). Cohabitation rates are highest among those who have never married with just over a quarter of people surveyed reporting cohabitation before their first marriage (Jay, 2012). Of these, half reported that they expected their cohabitation to end in marriage; about one quarter to one third of cohabitations end either in marriage or dissolution of the relationship within 3 years (Jay, 2012). Further, cohabitation rates are highest for those who have not completed college, accounting for all but 12% of men and women reporting that they are livi ng with their partners (Jay, 2012). Cohabitation and marriage are two significant decisions college students will make, but very little is known about what college students think about living together before marriage. Given the nearly 50% divorce rate in the United States (Jay, 2012), understanding how young adults view cohabitation as on option for life relationships needs further investigation. Beliefs about Living Together Before Marriage Research Paper Introduction:Show MoreRelatedEssay Cohabitation, Marriage, and Divorce1239 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages1.0 Introduction Cohabitation is and has been a norm in almost all societies in the world. It has been perceived as the stepping stone to marriage by the modern generation. In Whitman, (2003), cohabitation has grown so widely that there is one cohabiting couple out of 7 marriages in 2010 as compared to 1 out of 90 marriages in 1960. According to her, the attitude towards the whole of marriage institution has changed drastically over time. In the same article, currently in the US, of 3 single womenRead MoreCohabitation and Its Effect on Rise in Divorce Rate1117 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEffect of Cohabitation on the Rising Divorce Rate The rise of the divorce rate seems to be due to the lack of commitment or understanding of love and longevity in a marriage. Cohabitation can be defined as an arrangement whereby two people decide to live together on a long term or permanent basis in an emotionally and /or sexually intimate relationship (Brannon 2008). Cohabitation is seen as the best way to understand a prospective mate in terms of living and financial stabilityRead MoreThe Vs. Mohammad Khan1615 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn the cases which were instituted prior to independence like A Dinohamy v. WL Blahamy the Privy Council laid down a broad rule stating that, Ã¢â¬Å"where a man and a women are proved to have lived together as a man and wife, the law will presume, unless the contrary be clearly proved, that they were living together in consequence of a valid marriage and not in a state of Ã¢â¬Å"concubinageÃ¢â¬ The same principle was reiterated in the case of Mohabhat Ali v. Mohammad Ibrahim Khan After independence, a notableRead MoreDivorce And Its Definition Of Marriage978 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMarriage is ending often in divorce due to marrying young, the expectations placed on it, living together before marriage, and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s independence. In this research paper, I will be discussing divorce and its definition. I will also discuss what sociologist theorists are saying regarding divorce in the research that IÃ¢â¬â¢ve read and reviewed. It is interesting to see how the reason for divorce continues to change but as society sees fit with their definition of marriage, divorce, and even whatRead MoreWhy Do Couples Move On Before Marriage?1331 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhy do couples move in before marriage? Cohabitation can be defined as when two people are in a committed relationship that decide to live together and play the role of a married couple but they are not legally married. When a couple has been together for a long time the relationship grows to become stronger and you get comfortable with your significant other, therefore couples tend to skip the step of marriage because they get use to the routine of being together that they decide to move in withoutRead MoreThe Pros And Cons Of Cohabitation Before Marriage1563 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Pros and Cons of Cohabitation before Marriage Introduction Social scientists have defined cohabitation as a situation where two adults, male and female live together in a relationship that is intimate and non-marital. The two make living arrangements without legal bounds to stay together before getting married. In most of the countries and in this case in the United States, cohabitation is a common feature among the American family life (Stokes Raley, n.d). It has become a typical pathway toRead MoreAnalysis Of Andrew J. Cherlin s American Marriage946 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageshow marriage in America is evolving from the universal marriage. CherlinÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of the universal marriage in his essay is the man is the breadwinner of the household and the woman is the homemaker. In the 20th century according to Cherlin, the meaning of marriage has been altered such as the changing division of labor, childbearing outside of marriage, cohabitation, gay marriage and the result of long- term cultural and material trends (1154). During the fir st transition of marriage, Cherlin discussesRead MoreThe Decline Of The Nuclear Family1084 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbecame synonymous with the American dream philosophy in the mid-1940s. The nuclear family standard is rapidly on the decline in the United States. These declining number have a range of causes. The causes of the decline of the nuclear family are cohabitation, childfree couples, high divorces rates, and the introduction of LGBTQ families. The effects are increased self-fulfillment, serial monogamy, childhood psychological trauma and family diversity. Gay and lesbian marriages primarily cause the nuclearRead MoreMarriage and Cohabitation13809 Words Ã |Ã 56 Pages 1.2 What is Cohabitation CHAPTER TWO Ã¢â¬â ORIGIN OF MARRIAGE 2.1 Types of Marriage 2.2 Justification of Marriage 2.3 Christian Perspective of Marriage 2.4 Advantages and dis-advantages of Marriage CHAPTER THREE Ã¢â¬â ORIGIN OF COHABITATION 3.1 Types of Cohabitation 3.2 Justification of Cohabitation 3.3 Christian perspective of Cohabitation 3.4 Advantages and dis- advantages of Cohabitation CHAPTER FOUR Ã¢â¬â MARRIAGE AND COHABITATION 4.1 Relationship between Marriage and Cohabitation 4.2 Comparison ofRead MoreDescribe Ways in Which Concept of Family Has Changed Across Cultures and over Time (Sociology)1442 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesUnited States, Canada and Northern Europe families has changed the most, now Nuclear families are dominating there, when in Asia Extended families still takes a greater number. In the richest places in the world numbers of same sex marriages, cohabitations, divorces significantly increasing, when in most less developed countries these things are forbidden and relatives still arrange their children marriages, or even force their children to get married to someone they want to. Everyone imagines
Criminal justice administration is not a position that should be taken lightly given that it involves an enormous responsibility and occasionally very stressful environment. As such, people in administrative positions are expected to be ethically upright and boast fitting behavior in view of the fact that they serve as examples to their co-workers and the community. The administrators are often confronted with challenges in criminal justice management as well as challenges that are very well associated with the modern government (University of South Florida, n. We will write a custom essay sample on Administrator Challenges or any similar topic only for you Order Now d.). TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s society is continually in transition; and as a result, fundamental and major changes are equally taking place in the social and economic field. In order for the criminal justice administration to be successful, it must necessarily keep pace with the changing times. It is important therefore that administrators must have an advanced analytical skill, as well as the capacity to use the aforementioned attribute in designing and evaluating solutions to the ever evolving challenges. Challenges of the Criminal Justice Administration Basic is the rule in criminal justice that serious inadequacy in the administration of justice is considered denial of justice. More often than not, breakdowns take place in the administration of criminal justice. Delay and incompetence in apprehending, deciding court cases and in providing appropriate correctional programs have become recognizable and unending to the system. This observable fact is not restricted to the United States alone, but it is rather worldwide and historical; it is inherent in every judicial system, which in reality should be guarding against any injustice made to a person. The causes of delays and inefficiencies in the administration of criminal justice are profound and diverse, arising as a result of factors equally inside and outside the system (Asian Legal Information Institute). Nevertheless, it has always been the primary concern of every civilized society to deal with the challenge of incompetence in the system with a view to find ways of eliminating substandard and insufficiencies in the administration. Court Administrator Generally, every court employs a court administrator who is placed to administer court operations including the management of finances and appointment of personnel. However, other than managing employees, there is more to being a court administrator. Court administratorsÃ¢â¬â¢ responsibilities involves personnel management, signing of judgments and orders, fiscal responsibilities, case flow management, records management, issuing summons, and statistical analysis, in addition to designing and putting into practice within the pre-existing court guidelines a number of significant procedures. Aside from managing their department and the court systemÃ¢â¬â¢s financial expenses, court administrators are also expected to make forecasts as to the future needs of the system. The court administratorsÃ¢â¬â¢ responsibility is one that cannot be taken without due consideration, since they are in charge for numerous responsibilities within the department. As such, they must be competent enough to think on their feet without delay. Court administrators must be capable of evaluating and interpreting the necessities of the organization, and must constantly assess the latterÃ¢â¬â¢s development in order to properly determine indispensable changes. The satisfying part of being a court administrator is that the position often builds encouraging relationships with the community, co-workers and employees. In addition, the position is satisfying in view of the fact that administrators are granted with the authority to execute courses of action that they believe to be advantageous to court employees as well as to the public. However, despite the fact that the role of court administrator generates numerous rewards, there are evidently several aspects which can and will complicate the role. Like any other profession, there are issues that would make the court administratorÃ¢â¬â¢s work multifaceted and obviously exhausting. Issues in the areas of public relations, budgeting, meeting deadlines and on the whole encouraging people, are continually being encountered by the justice system. Consequently, because of the unremitting traditional direction of justice, many observers suggest that court administrators are becoming inefficient and ineffective in the performance their duties. Experts believe that in order to become an efficient and effective court administrator, one must have: (1) proper support systems, together with case flow systems and administration information systems; (2) sufficient resources, together with adequate resources for the adjustment process; (3) effective procedures, tactics and strategies, as well as an operational plan; (4) an appropriate management and organizational structure; (6) a set of objectives and collective vision; and (6) strong management skills (Fraser, n.d., p.6). Unfortunately, some observers believe that there are still a few court administrators these days that are deficient with some of the abovementioned requirements. Outcome of the Course In addition to the fact that the course enhanced my researching skills, I learned a number of additional useful knowledge, particularly on the administration and administrators of criminal justice. The course has provided me information on some challenges affecting the aforesaid administrators, aside from the issues and satisfaction associated with the position. Taken as a whole, the criminal justice administration class has helped improve my awareness of what the specific duties of the justice administrators really are. The class has enlightened me on the large number of new opportunities as well as several long-established career opportunities in criminal justice. For that reason, I am now taking into consideration careers in the criminal justice system, especially in court administration. References Asian Legal Information Institute. (n.d.). Criminal Justice System. Retrieved February 6, 2009, fromÃ http://www.asianlii.org/pk/other/PKLJC/reports/22.html Fraser, C. (n.d.). Modernizing Models of Court Administration: A Time for Change. Canadian Institute for the Administration of Justice. Retrieved February 6, 2009, from http://www.ciaj-icaj.ca/english/publications/2004/684Fraser.pdf University of South Florida. (n.d.). Criminal Justice Administration. Retrieved February 6, 2009, from http://criminology.usf.edu/faculty/data/certificate_brochure.pdf How to cite Administrator Challenges, Papers
Can Machiavellis Prince be a Good Christian? [Many] have pictured republics and principalities which in fact have never been known or seen, because how one lives is so far distant from how one ought to live, that he who neglects what is done for what ought to be done, sooner effects his ruin than his preservation Hence it is necessary for a prince wishing to hold his own to know how to do wrong, and to make use of it or not according to necessity. (Machiavelli, 62) Machiavellis suggestion to rulers to sacrifice virtue to win and maintain states has rought his political treatise, The Prince, both attention and contention for the past five centuries. While condemned for the ruthlessness and cruelty that it espouses, The Prince has been hailed as the first modern political treatise for the meticulous warfare and statecraft strategies it prescribes to the rulers. It is a sprawling discourse on how a king needs, not ought, to behave in order to maintain his kingdom; Machiavellis Prince is a strategist whose decisions are based on calculating reason rather than on any abiding faith in morality or virtue. His overarching rgument is to value, in order to achieve and hold power, being feared over being loved, being cruel over being kind, being parsimonious over being generous, and so While other texts in the wisdom tradition Platos Republic and Aurelius Meditation, for example emphasize the importance of a ruler being good and Just, Machiavelli concerns himself solely with practicality, dismissing the philosophical tradition of holding rulers to moral perfection. Under the light of comparison then, it is easy to dismiss The Prince as an aberration in the history of classical philosophy; fter all, it never came to be read by a ruler and Machiavelli himself saw little political success in his life after writing it (Machiavelli, p. 9). Yet, interspersed through The Prince are phrases like without burdening the people (Machiavelli, p. 4) which make the reader wonder at the engaging struggle between what he prescribes for the king a relentless and amoral pursuit of reasoning and strategy and what he hopes the king will achieve for his populace, which is overall stability and peace. At stake is a fundamental rift between what Machiavellis Prince does to win and maintain states, and why he does it. Machiavelli prizes a kings use of far-reaching vision to achieve victory that easily dispenses with questions of morality. Yet, he is acutely aware of the king being kindly to his subjects, mentioning several ways in which the king can win and maintain favor with his population, even if that is with an eye on maintaining power in the state. A king who but not in what he provides for his population. Machiavellis treatment of virtue as dispensable in exchange for a greater aim has brought his views on Christianity into extensive discussion; Stanfords Encyclopedia f Philosophy pays homage to this ancient discussion by citing several prominent philosophers who hold competing views on Machiavellis perception of religion. Some claim that he was profoundly anti-Christianl while others believe the opposite, citing the central biblical themes [that] run through Machiavellis writings, [and which include] a coherent conception of a divinely-centered and ordered cosmos in which other forces are subsumed under a divine will and plan2. This paper complements this discussion by evaluating The Prince under the light of the Gospel y Matthew and establishing that Machiavellis prince is unchristian as a person but Christian in his duties as a ruler and in what he provides for his people. On the relationship with the nobles Machiavelli states that there are two distinct parties in each city the nobility and the people, or the masses and his advice on warfare and statecraft treats each very differently (Machiavelli, p. 43). He is aware of the different roles that each part of the population plays in bringing a king to power and in keeping him there. He is deeply suspicious and mistrusting of the nobility, seeing in their ambitions an inherent onflict with those of the masses. At each step of the process of winning and maintaining power, he emphasizes this conflict of interest and overwhelmingly supports favoring the masses over the nobility. While coming to power, he says it is better to come to sovereignty with the aid of the people rather than that of the nobles; the nobles consider themselves a rulers equals while amongst people, there are none who are not prepared to obey him (Machiavelli, p. 43). Overwhelmingly then, Machiavellis cruelty is directed towards the nobility and, in xtension, other counselors and lords in the kingdom. He advices kings to put those nobles to death whose ambitions are misaligned and not subservient to themselves; in particular, he hails Cesare Borgias strategy of executing Ramiro, a lord, in order to prevent him usurping excessive authority. If the nobility in a princes kingdom can be compared to the apostles who Jesus delegates the task of proclaiming his message, then Borgias treatment of the nobility lies in stark contrast to Jesus treatment of the apostles. Jesus trusts his apostles completely, entrusting them with the responsibility f healing people in his absence. He also takes them in full confidence, addressing them directly instead of talking to them in parables like he does with his people. Machiavellis expectations of absolute loyalty from the nobility is similar to Jesus expectations from the apostles, yet his mistrust and suspiciousness of their ambitions force him to be cruel and selfish enough to kill his fellow rulers, an action deeply in contention with the way Jesus treats his own fellow men. must be treated differently and selectively based on their strength, their usability, nd the support they lend to the kings kingdom. This is in addition to the blanket advice to never, never let a strong king take power in the neighborhood. He again uses Cesare Borgias example to demonstrate the right way in which to balance severity with kindness towards kings in the neighborhood (Machiavelli, p. 35); Borgia knows how to gain friends and soldiers, get the population to love and fear him, and eliminate those who can or will harm him. His severity towards enemies revolts against yet another tenet of Christianity that asks people to love their enemies and o kindness unto them (5:44). On the relationship with the people In contrast, Machiavellis treatment of the masses is less consummate with absolute cruelty. While he still prescribes a Judicious use of violence to keep the population in fear, his actions are much more motivated by the desire to maintain stability in and gain favor with the population rather than by any abject sense of mistrust. A Machiavellian ruler is at various times portrayed to be a protector of the people, a defender of their way of life, and sometimes Just a leader who keeps them in order. He states that a king is better protected if his population loves him, claiming, The best fortress for the prince is to be loved by his people, because if he is hated by them, all the fortresses in the world will not save him (Machiavelli, 83). He ponders over the difficulty of maintaining control over a state if the populace hates its king, stating several times that while the king can use his armies to fend against external danger, all of it will be in vain in the face of the internal threat of an unhappy population. Happy, however, is an ambiguous word in the world of Machiavelli. It seems that, for Machiavelli, subjects in a society derive happiness partly from being able to maintain their old ways of life (Machiavelli, 28) and partly by being loyal to their king (Machiavelli, 65). To maintain stability and fealty in his population, Machiavelli advises the prince to use force Judiciously; he must prefer being considered clement and not cruel (Machaivelli, 65), but still not be lenient enough to let this clemency allow the country to go to ruin. In the larger scheme of things, then, Machiavelli says a king much not mind the reproach of cruelty; because with a few examples [of ruelty], he will be more merciful than those who, through too much mercy, allow disorders to rise (Machiavelli, p. 65). Furthermore, he claims that if there are factions of the population that seem threatening, the king must be ready to use force to swiftly and surely suppress any signs of rebellion. This, he says, is better than letting any seeds of discontent from turning into a war (Machiavelli, p. 3). Needless to say, Jesus of the Gospel according to Matthew would never espouse such actions. In stark difference to a Machiavellian prince, Jesus expounds the virtue of urning the right cheek (Matthews, 5:39). Jesus attitude towards the people in his kingdom is that of absolute benevolence and his actions preach tolerance and Famously, he also says that those who use the sword must perish by the sword. A Machiavellian prince, in stark contrast, uses h is sword to maintain peace in his kingdom and to inspire fear in his people. As a leader, Jesus also deals extensively with the private lives of his followers. He is privvy to their troubles and extends his help to each and all. He extends the message that helping others is to welcome God into the home. Machiavelli, in contrast, overwhelmingly supports non-interference in the moral lives of the subjects. He makes no mention of the king having any obligation to reform the population. He believes instead that a leader must let the newly acquired subjects maintain their way of life so as to minimize any cause of rebellion (Machiavelli, p. 9). In all his dealings with people, Machiavellis prince must project himself to be a paragon of generosity, loyalty, humaneness, integrity, and scrupulousness (Machiavelli, p. 70). This again lies in stark contrast with Jesus who tries to hide his iracles and his kindness, and also expects his followers to do the same (23:23), for Jesus does not have any need to parade his kindness, while Machiavellis prince needs to use it as a weapon of persuasion and popularity.
Sunday, May 3, 2020
To imagine family life consisting of anything else that it is today may be a difficult notion to apprehend. Obscure as it is to believe, family life, in Ancient Rome, although seemingly similar, was an entirely different concept. The saying, Ã¢â¬Å"DadÃ¢â¬â¢s going to kill me! Ã¢â¬ might just be taken literally. Family, or Familia, is composed of a paterfamilias, our equivalent of a father; his male children, married or unmarried; his wife; his unmarried daughters; his daughters-in-law; his servants; the servantsÃ¢â¬â¢ family; and the family slaves. A Familia is begun by the conjugal pair, domus, and the land and property they own. The bond they share is solely legal, for in these times religion was not involved with marriage. The relationship was a Ã¢â¬Å"partnership of all life, sharing rights human and divineÃ¢â¬ through the Ã¢â¬Å"union of a man and woman. Ã¢â¬ Emotions between the paterfamilias and his wife was not romantic, yet it was an emotional bond created for stability and wealth. We will write a custom essay sample on Family Organization in Ancient Rome or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Children did emerge from this bond, and extramarital affairs by the paterfamilias were not only common, but were regular events. The Domus is composed of a wife and the all powerful paterfamilias. This figure can be represented as the father. The paterfamilias is the oldest male member of the household, and has total control over his domain. The children were allowed to have possessions, as long as under the power of their paterfamilias. The possessions the children owned were subject to removal by the paterfamilias into their own possession. Children were not bothered by this law, because in these times life expectancy was short, thus the paterfamiliasÃ¢â¬â¢ reign did not last long over the household. While in reign, the paterfamilias would arrange marriages for all his children. Personal financial growth was one of his main concerns. Girls would marry from the ages of twelve to fifteen, and boys from fourteen and on. The paterfamilias had the power to sell his children, as well as kill his children. Due to limit the mouths to feed and later property division amongst heirs. Infanticide became a common practice during this era, so popular that searching for abandoned infants became highly rampant. Infants found were usually kept as slaves or sold into slavery. Contraceptives and abortion were known and practiced, but contraceptives lacked perfection and abortions were highly dangerous, if not lethal. The life of a slave was not bad as one would believe. In fact, they lived relatively very well. Owners even encouraged slaves to reproduce. Their responsibilities consisted of those of a wife, for the fact most slaves were bought by wealthy husbands whose wives were tired of the daily house chores. As we do now, Ancient Romans devised a nominal system intended to give individual names as well as family names. A man who does not belong to a clan, or gens, would have two names. First, a praenomen, which is his given name (e. g. Marcus, Titus). Then you have the nomen, which can be the family name, or if his family is unknown, a form of patronymic (e. g. Marcius, Tituis) A man who belongs to a clan, or gens, would have three names. The first, a praenomen, which is his given name. Second, a nomen, which expresses the clan to which he would belong. Lastly, a cognomen, which expresses his family or the branch of his clan. A gens is simply a grouping of paterfamilias and males of different families. A name would be created to represent the clan. An unmarried woman would have two names. The first would be a feminine form of her fathers nomen combined with a cognomen (e. g. Maior, Minor, Tertia. ) This expresses her chronological ranking in the family. For example, Nero Claudius DrususÃ¢â¬â¢s second daughter would be Claudia Secunda. A married woman would take a form of her husbands cognomen and add it to her name. Family life, a concept taken for granted. Learning other ways family life has been can help us to appreciate our own daily life. It is evident how much our culture, as well as the cultures around us, owe to the Ancient Romans. I am thankful, as well as all whom have taken this class, to learn the struggles and achievements the cultures preceding our own have endured, so we may learn and adapt from their history.